Madhusudan vs State Of Madhya Pradesh – S 34 IPC – Common Intention

Indian Penal Code, 1860; Section 34 and 149 –A mere common intention per se may not attract Section 34 IPC without action in furtherance of such common intention- There is a significant distinction between Section 34 and Section 149 of IPC. Section 34 requires active participation and prior meeting of minds whereas Section 149 assigns liability merely by membership of an unlawful assembly and has a wider scope than Section 34 IPC. (Para 19)

Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 217– A Court may alter or add to any charge before judgment is pronounced but when charges are altered, opportunity must be given under Section 217 of the CrPC, both to the Prosecution and the defence, to recall or re-examine witnesses in reference to such altered charges. More importantly, in case, charges are altered by the Court, reasons for the same must be recorded in the judgment. (Para 21)

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